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Introduction of the Eurocodes (No. 17 Jul-04)

In the next seven or eight months the Eurocodes will be published with National Application Documents; they will be in use as alternative codes of practice for engineering design. This transition period will show designers who take the trouble to read the documents that there are savings to be made in the structures designed with theses new rules and in some cases they will highlight shortcomings in or current methods of design.

As designers, we should take advantage of the transition period to get our Eurocode knowledge up to the same level as our current knowledge of the extant practices. The transition period will be surprisingly short when the withdrawal of the current codes will herald the end of the dual operation and the beginning of the full application of the Eurocodes.

There are nine main euro codes or euro norms covering the methods of design and use of the main materials in structural engineering: –

  • EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design
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  • EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
  • EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
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  • EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
  • EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
  • EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
  • EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
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  • EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
  • EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

A designer will have to make reference to several of these codes to gather the rules for a particular structure because the philosophy of the arrangement of the text is to eliminate duplication; each code only carries rules for the specific area of design featured in the title and makes reference back the other codes such as EN 1990 where basic rules are defined. For instance, EN 1994 refers the designer to EN 1993 for steel and EN 1992 for concrete rules. Composite action is not covered in EN 1992 or EN 1993 except by reference to EN 1994.

Each code has been sub divided into parts and sections with greater detail for particular aspects of design in the scope of the code. For example, the material codes 2 to 6 and 9 each have a part covering fire resistance for those materials, but each in turn refers back to EN 1991, which covers the basic aspects of the actions of fire on structures as well as the permanent, transient and variable loads that are used for all materials.

New words and terminology have been adopted in the text that are scientifically and grammatically correct, without ambiguity in each of the three main languages, English, French and German, of the European community.

This is a significant harmonisation of engineering knowledge, incorporating as it does the very latest proven technology for the structural designer. Whilst general agreement has been reached on the vast majority of factors and characteristic values to be used with the rules of design, some variation between nations has been permitted to account for regional variations in climate and working practices. These variations are held in the National Application Document for each code; any design for a specific country must be made using not only the rules in the relevant Euro norm but using also the variations permitted in the appropriate National Application Document. A French designer of a structure to be erected in Ireland may use the Eurocode published by the French Standards Authority (AFNOR) but the designer must use the variations required by the appropriate National Application Document for Ireland published by the National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI).

You may already have noted that many supporting standards for the production, testing and installation of products have recently been published, these are required ahead of the design rules to ensure that these supporting standards are in place before the design rules are implemented in each of the European Countries.

Like the Euro, the introduction of the design Euro Norms will be sensibly almost on the same day; they must be published within six months of the date of availability.

Colin Short,
Colin Short Associates
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