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Can Bridge Repair And Replacement Costs Be Reduced By Developing “Smart” Bridges? (No.15 May-03)

There is a lot of European research going on in bridge loading at the moment. The Eurocode for bridge loading, EC1, Part 3, is the first bridge loading code in the world to be based on statistical principles. With the techniques used to develop the EC1 notional traffic loading ai??i?? equivalent of BS5400 ai???HAai??? ai??i?? it is now possible to derive a site-specific traffic loading for a bridge that is being assessed. In many cases, particularly if the bridge is subject to a low traffic flow, it is possible to prove that bridges are safe even if they can only carry a small portion of what the assessment code prescribes.

The approaches used at the moment vary considerably and it is questionable if this approach is yet sufficiently well established to be used for general bridge assessment. However, there is some degree of convergence in European thinking as can be seen from the COST 345 action, ai???Procedures for the Assessment of Highway Structuresai???, the final report of which is due out this year.

Research to improve our understanding of traffic loading is ongoing at UCD. For example, the Eurocode allowance for dynamic impact is quite conservative ai??i?? it is based on tests carried out in Switzerland of single trucks crossing bridges. It is known that dynamic excitation occurs when the frequency of the truck crossing speed coincides with the natural frequency of the bridge. However, the vast majority of bridges have two or more lanes and the critical loading event consists of two or more trucks meeting (or passing) on the bridge.

The dynamics of a two-truck loading event is not easy to predict ai??i?? it is affected by the relative speeds and the point at which the trucks meet. However, you can reasonably expect interference in the dynamic excitation effect of each truck which would give a much reduced dynamic amplification overall. This is being modelled at UCD at the moment and tested in the field through a collaboration with the Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute. The results may form the basis for a future revision to the Eurocode traffic load model.

So, what will happen in the future? One idea that is being investigated through a European research project is a bridge that communicates with the truck so as to guarantee that dynamic excitation does not occur when two trucks meet on it. The bridge will detect the approaching trucks and, if their speeds and calculated meeting point are such as to cause a problem, the bridge will instruct one or both of them to slow down. It may sound far fetched but this is the kind of thinking being used to try to get the maximum out of the infrastructure that we already have and to minimise the need to strengthen or replace bridges using non-renewable materials.

Eugene OBrien
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