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May 2003
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Boyne Bridge (No.15 May-03)

The Boyne Bridge currently reaching completion will carry the M1 motorway across the Boyne River about 3km to the west of Drogheda.Ai?? The asymmetric cable stayed bridge in total 350m long crosses both streams of the river in a single stayed span of 170m.Ai?? Sited 20m above the river and with a pylon over 90m high, the structure provides a landmark along the scenic Boyne Valley.Ai?? The cable stayed form of bridge chosen was driven by the need to respect the environmentally sensitive nature of the river channels and the central island as well as matching the asymmetric nature of river valley at the crossing.

Underlying ground conditions at the site consist of karstic limestone typically exhibiting fissures and voids.Ai?? All elements of the sub-structures excluding the anchorage abutment are supported on bored piles, 1500mm diameter for the pylon and 900mm for all other piled substructures.

The pylon is an inverted ai???Yai??i?? in elevation.Ai?? The rectangular legs are hollow allowing full access internally to the pylon head for personnel and equipment.Ai?? This allows stays to be stressed from inside the pylon head. The south (anchorage) abutment is a multicellular reinforced concrete box partially filled with concrete, with a total weight of 17,000 tonnes and provides the anchorage to the back stays of the pylon.Ai?? Permanent access to this abutment is provided so that stays can be stressed and anchorages inspected.

The bridge deck on all spans consists of 230mm concrete slab acting compositely with a structural steel ladder beam.Ai?? The latter consists of a pair of longitudinal steel girders 1750mm deep minimum with steel cross girders at 3.333mm centres. The cable stays which are at 10m centres on the main span are connected to cross girder extensions.Ai?? All of the structural steel is enveloped by a pultruded GRP enclosure so that conditions close to indoor conditions prevail within the enclosure.Ai?? The steel is left unpainted and it is expected that in these conditions the steel will require very low or possibly no maintenance in the future.Ai?? The enclosure provides a ready-made access platform for the future inspection of the steelwork, deck soffit and movement joints.Ai?? The main span of the deck is supported by an inclined plane of stay cables at each side of the deck.Ai?? The fourteen stays on each side fan out in a semi-harp arrangement from the top of the pylon, providing reasonable space for stressing purposes whilst maintaining the advantage of steeper inner stays.Ai?? The stays were installed using the Freysinnet iso-tension system of strand by strand installation where each individual strand in a stay is stressed using a monostrand jack.

boyne15aSpecialist studies carried out at the Preliminary Design Stage indicated that wind susceptible vehicles had a considerably higher risk of overturning on the bridge than on the motorway approaches.Ai?? In addition these studies established at the provision of 2.1m high windshields with 45% porosity at the edges of the bridge would reduce this risk to a level comparable to the risk along significant lengths of the Northern Motorway both existing and proposed.Ai?? The wind shielding consists of three transparent polycarbonate panels each 370mm wide with 380mm clear gaps.Ai?? The panels are supported by aluminium posts at 2.5 centres.Ai?? This arrangement allows for reasonably uninterrupted views along the Boyne Valley.

The aerodynamic response of the deck and windshields was assessed by carrying out wind tests on a sectional model in a wind tunnel.Ai?? Analysis of the results indicated a satisfactory deck response.Ai?? The measure of force coefficients were used in the detailed design of the deck while static pressure distribution measurements around the deck section were used to obtain local design wind pressures to be used on the design of the enclosure system.

The efficiency of the windshields was determined by measuring the side force and overturning moment on a model of a furniture van positioned on the deck.Ai?? Measurements were taken with and without windshields.Ai?? Analysis of the results confirmed the findings of the original wind shielding study.

Architectural lighting of the bridge gave the opportunity to highlight and reveal the bridge from a number of standpoints.Ai?? A line of side emitting fibre optics in white, located below the edge beam of the deck produces a fine sharp line to delineate the deck and frame the white roadway lighting.Ai?? Narrow beam luminaires mounted on the deck and anchorage abutment and directed up the cables pick out the stays in a deep blue colour.Ai?? As the beams converge towards the pylon heads they have the effect of strongly highlighting the bridge structure.Ai?? Light projected up the outside of the pylon from locations at the base helps to define the pylon shape.Ai?? The inside faces are lit in a similar manner providing a dramatic arch for motorists to drive through.Ai?? Finally, the recess at the top between the pylon legs is brightly lit to ensure a measure of drama.

The inclined legs of the pylon were constructed in 6m high pours using the lightweight Alumna falsework system similar to that used on the Charles River Bridge in Boston, USA.Ai?? In this system the formwork is supported from a truss, which is constructed between the legs and is initially supported from the ground.Ai?? As the legs rise upwards, members of the truss are removed from the bottom and reassembled at the top of the falsework.Ai?? In this way the falsework ai???climbsai??i?? with the legs and is supported from the legs.Ai?? The falsework also serves to keep the legs in their correct lateral positions, obviating the need for jacking the legs apart prior to constructing the pylon head.

For the pylon head, the contractor adopted 3m high pours with the steel plates of the stem liners forming the inner faces and the RMD system of climbing formwork for the outer faces.boyne15b

For the four spans on the northern approaches to the bridge, the contractor welded the longitudinal steel beams on the ground and lifted them into position on the approach span piers.Ai?? The cross girders were then bolted to the longitudinal girders.Ai?? ai???Onmiaai??i?? planks were placed on the steel framework and the insitu concrete slab was poured starting at the north abutment.

While the approach spans were being constructed, the steelwork for the main and back span were assembled on stillages behind the south (anchorage) abutment, along the lines of the motorway.Ai?? The outer permanent back stay (B14) was installed and used to stabilise the pylon during the launch.Ai?? The steelwork was transferred to two computer-controlled multi-axle trailers and a skate located at the rear of the anchorage abutment.Ai?? A temporary post and stays (T1 and T2) were installed to support the leading cantilever until it reached the pylon.Ai?? A hauling line was anchored behind the north abutment and connected to the leading end of the steelwork.Ai?? The steelwork was launched by driving the trailers forward and pulling on the hauling line.Ai?? The trailers also provided braking to control the launch.

When the steelwork had reached the pylon, the temporary post was removed, the skate moved to the back of the abutment and temporary stay T1 connected to the top of the pylon.Ai?? The launch then continued with the following cycle:

As temporary stay T2 passed the pylon it was also connected to the top of the pylon and the launch continued with two temporary stays.

When the steel girders were in the correct longitudinal position, they were lowered to their final levels at the anchorage abutment and pylon and the level adjusted at the closure joint.Ai?? The steel girders were then welded to anchorage plates in the south abutment and to the end cantilever of the approach spans.

The concrete deck was constructed starting at the pylon and working firstly towards the anchorage abutment and then northwards across the main span.Ai?? As the slab reached the position of the first fore stay (M1), the first permanent back stay (B1) was installed followed by the first permanent fore stay M1. The next 10m of slab was poured and stays B2 and M2 installed.Ai?? Construction continued with a typical cycle:

Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai?? pour 20m of slab,

Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai?? install two pairs of back stays, and

Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai??Ai?? install two pairs of fore stays.

As the construction face reached the temporary stays T2 and T1, they were removed followed by the hauling cable.Ai?? Finally, the precast edge beams and deck furniture were aligned and fixed in position, the GRP enclosure installed and the roadway surfacing laid.

The piling works were carried out by Ascon Ltd. as an advance contract.Ai?? The bridge with approximately 500m of motorway was constructed by SIAC ai??i?? Cleveland Bridge J.V.Ai?? The bridgeworks are due to finish in early Summer 2003 and will have taken three years to construct.Ai?? The total cost of the bridge was ai??i??35.8 million excluding V.A.T.

Joe Oai??i??Donovan, Roughan Oai??i??Donovan

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