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James Daly Memorial Lecture – Pont de Normandie (No. 5 Apr-98)

This year’s James Daly Memorial Lecture was delivered by the eminent French engineer and designer of the Normandie Bridge, Dr. Michel Virlogeux, in the Burke Theatre, Trinity College. When opened in 1995, the Pont de Normandie Bridge was the longest cable stayed bridge structure in the world, at 856m. It currently retains that position, although the Tatar Bridge in Japan, with a span of 890m, will surpass the span of Normandie when it opens later this year.

Pont de Normandie

Pont de Normandie

Formerly head of the large bridge division of S.E.T.R.A., the French highways technical authority, Dr. Virlogeux is the pre-eminent bridge engineer of his generation in France, and has been the recipient of numerous international awards, including the Gold Medal of the Institution in 1997. On the night he treated the attendance to a captivating lecture covering both design and constructional aspects of this bridge, which has pushed out the frontiers of cable stayed bridge design.

Costing approximately A?250m, Pont de Normandie crosses the Seine Estuary, linking the cities of Le Havre and Honfleur. Historically there was no bridge across the Seine downstream of Rouen, thus significantly restricting the economic development of the port of Le Havre. In the 1960’s the Tancarville suspension bridge was constructed, approximately 20km upstream of Le Havre. Concern remained that the port of Le Havre was almost entirely dependent on the Tancarville Bridge for access across the Seine. These concerns were further increased when theAi?? Tancarville Bridge began to exhibit durability problems within a few years of opening.

Plans for a downstream crossing of the Seine were developed during the 1970’s. At this point the proposal was for a much shorter main span than that ultimately built. The original proposals were however shelved, as a consequence of the economic downturn following the Second Oil Crisis.

The bridge proposals were resurrected again by the Chambre du Commerce du Havre in the 1980’s. Concerns in relation to ship collisions dictated that the new proposal was for a much longer main span than originally envisaged.

Both cable stayed and suspension alternatives were considered for the crossing. However, a cable stayed solution was shown to be overall the more economic, and also avoided the visual intrusion associated with the anchorage’s of the suspension bridge solution. When the bridge was opened in 1995, its main span of 856m was almost 250m longer than the previous longest span. Many bridge engineers considered that the proposed span length constituted too great a leap in technology, particularly as regards the stability of the very slender deck cantilevers in the construction phase.

The deck is a composite prestressed concrete / steel structure, achieving the best balance for aerodynamic stability and lightweight deck. The back spans and the initial cantilever sections of the main span were of prestressed concrete box construction. The central 624m of the main span is of steel box construction. The mass of the concrete in the back spans and cantilever section enhances the aerodynamic stability, while the steel box section in the centre of the main span reduces the self weight of the deck structure. Both the concrete and steel deck sections of the deck have the same aerodynamically shaped cross section, first used for the Severn and Humber Bridges. The torsional stiffness of the box girder section ensures adequate separation of the first bending and torsional modes of vibration thereby ensuring the aerodynamic stability.

A programme of wind tunnel testing was undertaken in order to verify the analytical dynamic models of the bridge. Sectional models of the deck were tested at scales of 1:75, 1:50 and 1:10. The test results indicated that the critical wind speeds for the onset of dynamic instability were well in excess of the predicted extreme wind speeds for the site.

A consortium of seven major French contractors constructed the concrete elements of the bridge. There was no French steelwork contractor of sufficient size to undertake the construction of the steel section of the deck.

The successful Danish steel contractor raised questions in relation to the stability of the extremely long deck cantilevers prior to final deck closure. The contractor commissioned additional wind testing, at his own expense. at the Danish Maritime Institute in order to verify the deck’s behaviour during the construction phase. As a precaution, tuned mass dampers were installed on the deck cantilevers so as to control the decks response in high winds. However. the dampers were not actually needed, and the deck closure was finally made in August 1994, following months of unusually calm weather.

The approach spans to the bridge consist of externally post-tensioned concrete box girders, constructed using the incremental launch method.

This involves the construction of the deck in stationary forms. As deck segments are cast, the deck is progressively jacked forward, and the cycle repeated. The 69 slope of the approach viaduct necessitated the use of an innovative “stair case” method of construction in which the deck was Jacked forward in steps of 150m and then up by 9mm.

Overall, Dr. Virlogeux struck a fine balance in the level of detail presented – an achievement in itself given the enormity of the project and the many complex technical and constructional issues which he touched upon during the course of the two hour lecture. In so doing. he successfully retained the audience’s interest throughout.

Pat Maher
Roughan & O’Donovan

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